アメリカ 発展 要因2020.12.11
２つの大戦争、すなわち南北戦争と第１次世界大戦との間に、アメリカ合衆国は成熟期に達した。5 50年にも及ばない期間に、米国は、農業を基盤とする共和国から、都市を中心とする国家に変容した。… Carnegie, who came to America from Scotland as a child of 12, progressed from bobbin boy in a cotton factory to a job in a telegraph office, then to one on the Pennsylvania Railroad. Moreover, to avoid competition rival companies sometimes divided (“pooled”) the freight business according to a prearranged scheme that placed the total earnings in a common fund for distribution. In the same period, the nation’s population more than doubled, with the largest growth in the cities. 経済やテクノロジーなど世界に大きな影響力があるアメリカ。そこになぜ毎年大勢の移民が世界中から集まってくるのか、「文化」や「競争社会」などの「見方」をもとに探る。 Cyrus McCormick achieved preeminence in the reaper business. As early as 1844, Samuel F. B. Morse had perfected electrical telegraphy; soon afterward distant parts of the continent were linked by a network of poles and wires. In 1862 Congress also voted a charter to the Union Pacific Railroad, which pushed westward from Council Bluffs, Iowa, using mostly the labor of ex-soldiers and Irish immigrants. アメリカ経済の戦後の「持続的成長」は、世界経済に対するアメリカ経済の編成力の重要な柱でした。そうした「持続的成長」のために、同時に、政府の機能がマクロ経済的な総需要の安定化と持続的な拡大を維持する重要な役割を担いました。 The same law also made the island officially a U.S. territory and gave its people American citizenship. Freight rates also frequently were not proportionate to distance traveled; competition usually held down charges between cities with several rail connections. But the Sioux of the Northern Plains and the Apache of the Southwest provided the most significant opposition to frontier advance. The Army was supposed to keep miners off Sioux hunting grounds, but did little to protect the Sioux lands. Rail lines extended cheaper freight rates to large shippers by rebating a portion of the charge, thus disadvantaging small shippers. Rates tended to be high between points served by only one line. The United States had pressured the French into removing troops from Mexico in 1867. The United States Steel Corporation, which resulted from this merger in 1901, illustrated a process under way for 30 years: the combination of independent industrial enterprises into federated or centralized companies. With this economic growth and affluence came corresponding problems. Luther Burbank in California produced scores of new fruits and vegetables; in Wisconsin, Stephen Babcock devised a test for determining the butterfat content of milk; at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, the African-American scientist George Washington Carver found hundreds of new uses for the peanut, sweet potato, and soybean. It provided for Panamanian sovereignty in the Canal Zone and transfer of the canal to Panama on December 31, 1999. After Reconstruction, Southern leaders pushed hard to attract industry. Moreover, any area of life that was not segregated by law was segregated by custom and practice. Good news for urban consumers, falling agricultural prices threatened the livelihood of many American farmers and touched off a wave of agrarian discontent. 斯波 照雄／中央大学商学部教授 専門分野 都市史、西洋史、商業史. Miners opened up the country, established communities, and laid the foundations for more permanent settlements. The peace treaty signed on December 10, 1898, transferred Cuba to the United States for temporary occupation preliminary to the island’s independence. しかし、奴隷制をめぐり南北が対立、南北戦争が起きます。. These and many other applications of science and ingenuity resulted in a new level of productivity in almost every field. 経済が拡大するには、人口の増加と労働生産性の上昇が重要です。アメリカの出生率は低下していますが、移民により長期的な人口増加が見込まれます。gafaによるit技術の進展とともに、アメリカ経済拡大の要因となるでしょう。 In 1946, after World War II, the islands finally attained full independence.). Couched in vague generalities, the law accomplished little immediately after its passage. Moreover, its assault on the communal organization of tribes caused further disruption of traditional culture. When the government of Queen Liliuokalani announced its intention to end foreign influence in 1893, American businessmen joined with influential Hawaiians to depose her. It left the United States exercising control or influence over islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific. But the American farmer grew enough grain and cotton, raised enough beef and pork, and clipped enough wool not only to supply American workers and their families but also to create ever-increasing surpluses. Feeding as they went, the cattle arrived at railway shipping points in Kansas, larger and fatter than when they started. Rebellions and attacks continued through the Civil War. A 1904 survey showed that more than 5,000 previously independent concerns had been consolidated into some 300 industrial trusts. In particular, Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy of the 1930s, while not ending all tensions between the United States and Latin America, helped dissipate much of the ill-will engendered by earlier U.S. intervention and unilateral actions. U.S. colonial policy tended toward democratic self-government. In 1950 Congress granted Puerto Rico complete freedom to decide its future. The farmer of 1800, using a hand sickle, could hope to cut a fifth of a hectare of wheat a day. In varying degrees, the explosion in agricultural science and technology affected farmers all over the world, raising yields, squeezing out small producers, and driving migration to industrial cities. During this period, public antipathy toward the trusts increased. The months of laborious travel hitherto separating the two oceans was now cut to about six days. Most Americans were sympathetic with the Cubans, but President Cleveland was determined to preserve neutrality. The federal government even set up a school in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in an attempt to impose white values and beliefs on Native-American youths. At the turn of the century, what is now Panama was the rebellious northern province of Colombia. The simultaneous conquest of malaria and yellow fever made it possible and was one of the 20th century’s great feats in preventive medicine. The president could at least content himself with the award of the Nobel Peace Prize (1906). Moreover, its race relations reflected not just the legacy of slavery, but what was emerging as the central theme of its history – a determination to enforce white supremacy at any cost. Unfortunately for the would-be farmers, much of the Great Plains was suited more for cattle ranching than farming, and by 1880 nearly 22,400,000 hectares of “free” land was in the hands of cattlemen or the railroads. When the Colombian legislature in 1903 refused to ratify a treaty giving the United States the right to build and manage a canal, a group of impatient Panamanians, with the support of U.S. Marines, rose in rebellion and declared Panamanian independence. アメリカ南北戦争の原因や歴史についてわかりやすく解説していきます。有名なリンカーンの奴隷解放宣言なども行われた、アメリカの転換点となった重要な出来事の一つです。アメリカ南北戦争は、現在の多民族国家アメリカとしての姿を形成する上で、重要な起点 Andrew Carnegie was largely responsible for the great advances in steel production. ここからは、現在まで日本経済を動かしている「資本主義」とは、どのようなしくみなのかを紹介してきます。 資本主義は以下のような特徴をもつしくみです。 1. No single city had as many as a million inhabitants in 1860; but 30 years later New York had a million and a half; Chicago, Illinois, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, each had over a million. A few years later, President Theodore Roosevelt mediated the deadlocked Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05, in many respects a struggle for power and influence in the northern Chinese province of Manchuria. Between two great wars – the Civil War and the First World War – the United States of America came of age. But inevitably the reservations had become smaller and more crowded. There he found and exported to his homeland the rust- and drought-resistant winter wheat that now accounts for more than half the U.S. wheat crop. Blamed for high retail prices, the McKinley duties triggered widespread dissatisfaction, led to Republican losses in the 1890 elections, and paved the way for Cleveland’s return to the presidency in the 1892 election. アメリカ合衆国が急速な工業化を果たしたのには、様々な要因、条件が貢献しており、例えば、広大な土地と労働力、気候の多様性、航行可能な運河・川・海岸水路の多様で豊富な存在、安価なエネルギーを得ることを可能とする豊かな天然資源、迅速な輸送力および資本力が挙げられる。 Four great meat packers, chief among them Philip Armour and Gustavus Swift, established a beef trust. In 1862 the Morrill Land Grant College Act allotted public land to each state for the establishment of agricultural and industrial colleges. Further curtailment of the right to vote followed. Ranching and the cattle drives gave American mythology its last icon of frontier culture – the cowboy. In 1887 the Dawes (General Allotment) Act reversed U.S. Native-American policy, permitting the president to divide up tribal land and parcel out 65 hectares of land to each head of a family. Easy and cheap to mine, remarkably free of chemical impurities, Mesabi ore could be processed into steel of superior quality at about one‑tenth the previously prevailing cost. Backed by the American ambassador to Hawaii and U.S. troops stationed there, the new government then asked to be annexed to the United States. The sources of American expansionism in the late 19th century were varied. It created an Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to oversee the act, but gave it little enforcement power. Corporations, making available a deep reservoir of capital and giving business enterprises permanent life and continuity of control, attracted investors both by their anticipated profits and by their limited liability in case of business failure. Hay promptly announced to the European powers and Japan that the United States would oppose any disturbance of Chinese territorial or administrative rights and restated the Open Door policy. Between 1860 and 1890, the production of such basic commodities as wheat, corn, and cotton outstripped all previous figures in the United States. Here as elsewhere, the United States was unwilling to deploy military force in the service of economic imperialism. The last decades of the 19th century were a period of imperial expansion for the United States. From Boston to San Francisco, whistles blew and flags waved when word came that Santiago had fallen. President Cleveland, just beginning his second term, rejected annexation, leaving Hawaii nominally independent until the Spanish-American War, when, with the backing of President McKinley, Congress ratified an annexation treaty. アメリカが大きく経済を発展させ、2位の中国と2倍以上の差をつけ、世界超大国を確立します。 ドイツが世界第3位の大国に成長していることもわかります。 【1928年】 1位 アメリカ：132兆円 2位 中国：51 兆円 9位 日本：17兆円 . This policy, however well-intentioned, proved disastrous, since it allowed more plundering of Native-American lands. Catching the entire Spanish fleet at anchor in Manila Bay, he destroyed it without losing an American life. Chief among them were Commodore Dewey and Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, who had resigned as assistant secretary of the navy to lead his volunteer regiment, the “Rough Riders,” to service in Cuba. はじめてでも使いやすい商品が多く、楽天ポイントをゲットできるサービスも。 独立以降、ニューヨークはさらに発展し、一時期はアメリカの首都になったこともあります。 その後、新しくワシントンD.C.が作られたため、首都のポジションこそ譲りましたが、重要な都市としての役目はむしろ大きくなっていきます。 西部に広大なフロンティアが存在した（ターナー説）. With the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, the Chinese struck out against foreigners. Many tribes of Native Americans – from the Utes of the Great Basin to the Nez Perces of Idaho – fought the whites at one time or another. The trusts were in effect combinations of corporations whereby the stockholders of each placed stocks in the hands of trustees. 豊かな天然資源の存在. Then, running north and south for nearly 1,600 kilometers, loomed huge mountain ranges, many rich in silver, gold, and other metals. During the four months it lasted, not a single American reverse of any importance occurred. The cattle boom peaked in the mid-1880s. More generally, the doctrine of “manifest destiny,” first used to justify America’s continental expansion, was now revived to assert that the United States had a right and duty to extend its influence and civilization in the Western Hemisphere and the Caribbean, as well as across the Pacific. Scarcely less important than machinery in the agricultural revolution was science. アメリカ経済史 †. Settlement was spurred by the Homestead Act of 1862, which granted free farms of 64 hectares to citizens who would occupy and improve the land. Another scientist, Marion Dorset, conquered the dreaded hog cholera, while still another, George Mohler, helped prevent hoof-and-mouth disease. In 1934 U.S. policy was reversed yet again by the Indian Reorganization Act, which attempted to protect tribal and communal life on the reservations. Soon the major railroads of the nation were organized into trunk lines and systems directed by a handful of men. Others, led by the African-American intellectual W.E.B. Moreover, the price of this drive for industrialization was high: Disease and child labor proliferated in Southern mill towns. They realized that if they could control both production and markets, they could bring competing firms into a single organization. The Philippines and Guam complemented other Pacific bases – Wake Island, Midway, and American Samoa. Later, in 1890, a ghost dance ritual on the Northern Sioux reservation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, led to an uprising and a last, tragic encounter that ended in the death of nearly 300 Sioux men, women, and children. In a period of less than 50 years it was transformed from a rural republic to an urban nation. He headed west to the young prairie town of Chicago, where he set up a factory – and by 1860 sold a quarter of a million reapers. Four armored Spanish cruisers steamed out of Santiago Bay to engage the American navy and were reduced to ruined hulks. Once the rebellion was quelled, Hay protected China from crushing indemnities. Railroads and steamships, moreover, began to pull regional markets into one large world market with prices instantly communicated by trans-Atlantic cable as well as ground wires. Newspapers dispatched correspondents to Cuba and the Philippines, who trumpeted the renown of the nation’s new heroes. McKinley tried to preserve the peace, but within a few months, believing delay futile, he recommended armed intervention. 日本の人口は、2020年5月1日時点では概算値で1億2,590万人。出生率の低下と人口の減少が問題になっています。一方アメリカの人口は、2019年の推計で3億2,906万人。日本と同じく出生率は低下していますが、人口は増加しています。少し不思議に感じるかもしれませんが、人口の増加や減少は将来の経済成長にも関係があります。日本やアメリカの株式に投資したいと考えている場合など、その動向に興味を持っている方も多いでしょう。ここではアメリカの人口と、経済成長の動向について解説していきたいと思います。, 人口と経済成長の関係を見る前に、経済成長についておさらいしておきましょう。経済成長というのは、文字通り経済の規模が拡大していくことです。そして経済の規模を測る指標としては、国内総生産（GDP）が主に使われます。GDPとは、国内に居住する人が、生産活動を通して生み出した付加価値の総額。ある国に住む人が、仕事などを通じて財やサービスを生産し、市場で売買されることで増加していくものです。, そこで問題となるのが、経済成長の要因。経済が成長するために必要なものとしては、下記の3つが挙げられます。, 人口と関係があるのは、「労働力の増加」。人口が増えると働く人も増え、経済の成長につながると言えるでしょう。アメリカの人口が増えていけば、経済成長にプラスの影響があります。, また「資本ストックの蓄積」というのは、工場の建設や機械の導入が進むことです。この「資本ストックの蓄積」と「技術進歩」は、「一人当たりの実質 GDP（労働生産性）」に影響を与えます。人口が増え、それに加え労働生産性も上がれば、より力強い経済成長が望めるでしょう。もし人口が減ったとした場合労働生産性の上昇でカバーできれば、経済成長を維持できるという見方もできます。, 楽天証券は低コストではじめられる、続けられる資産運用のサポートが特徴。 States offered large inducements and cheap labor to investors to develop the steel, lumber, tobacco, and textile industries. Before he was 30 years old he had made shrewd and farsighted investments, which by 1865 were concentrated in iron. The first great rush of population to the Far West was drawn to the mountainous regions, where gold was found in California in 1848, in Colorado and Nevada 10 years later, in Montana and Wyoming in the 1860s, and in the Black Hills of the Dakota country in the 1870s. it革命がもたらす社会－アメリカ経済をモデルとして－ 苧野佐弥香 はじめに 21 世紀の経済・産業を活性化するかぎとしてのit(1)が注目されている。ただ、注意しな ければならないのは、it は単に経済・産業の活性化の一要因ではない。it は、経済や社会 Half a century later, however, as part of an ill-starred campaign to influence the Mexican revolution and stop raids into American territory, President Woodrow Wilson sent 11,000 troops into the northern part of the country in a futile effort to capture the elusive rebel and outlaw Francisco “Pancho” Villa. アメリカで暮らす人に多い傾向にある肥満問題は、健康不安とともに大きな社会問題に発展しています。単なる肥満に加え、病的肥満と呼ばれる人口も増えており、それにともなう疾患も増えています。アメリカでの食生活の何がいけないのでしょうか？ Cleveland, a conservative Democrat, regarded tariff protection as an unwarranted subsidy to big business, giving the trusts pricing power to the disadvantage of ordinary Americans. He made the issue the keynote of his campaign for reelection, but Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison, a defender of protectionism, won in a close race. Faced with pervasive discrimination, many African Americans followed Booker T. Washington, who counseled them to focus on modest economic goals and to accept temporary social discrimination. In 1840 Cyrus McCormick performed a miracle by cutting from two to two-and-a-half hectares a day with the reaper, a machine he had been developing for nearly 10 years. Working conditions were often poor.